Nobel Prizes for the year 2012 declaredNobel Prizes for the year 2012 have been declared. The six prizes declared include the one for Economics also. Originally Nobel Prizes were awarded in five disciplines, namely, Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature and for peace. These awards were constituted on the basis of a Will of the Swedish Scientist Alfred Nobel. He wanted his savings to be used as an endowment to give these awards annually to the the best worker in the respective fields. The awards were started in the year 1901. There was no award for Economics in the beginning. The same was started by the Swedish Central Bank from 1969 onwards. An Indian born Economist Amartya Sen is one among the recipients of Nobel Prize in Economics.
This year the Nobel prizes have gone to the following scientists and other experts in respective fields.
1. Physics (shared by two) :
Dr. David Wineland (68) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and University of Colorado Boulder, U.S. and Serge Haroche (68), College de France and Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France.
2. Medicine (shared by two) :
Sir John Gurdon of Gurdon Institute, Cambridge, England and Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University, Japan.
3. Chemistry (shared by two) :
Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka shared this prize. These U.S. based scientists work in two different Universities, Duke University and Stanford University respectively.
4. Literature :
Guan Moye ('Mo Yan'), a novelist of Japan , based on his various works.
5. Peace :
This year the Nobel Prize for Peace has gone to European Union. Formation of this Union led to peace in the European countries after the World Wars.
6. Economics (shared by two) :
Two U.S. Economists Prof. Lloyd Shapley (89) of University of California, Los Angeles and Prof. Alvin E. Roth (60) of Harvard University, Massachussets.