Now courses are offered in several Universities at the PG level in Geology as well as in Marine Geology.
Gold Member, SPK
1) Physical Geology: It deals with the study of various natural agents and process that act on and within the earth. This includes the geologic work of different natural agents like wind, river, glaciers, ocean and ground water.
2) Mineralology: This branch is concerned with the study of minerals which are the basic units of rocks and ones. Mineralology deals with their formation, association, physical and chemical properties and uses.
3) Petrology: It deals with the study of rocks, their composition, their texture, structure, mode of formation, occurrence and distribution. This is the most important branch of geology for civil engineers.
4) Structural geology: This branch is attributed to the study of various structures in rocks like folds, joints and uncomformities. These structures are produced due to deforming forces due to tectonic forces.
5) Stratigraphy: It is the study of chronological sequence of rocks, their co-relation interms of age, compositions and structures. Tectonic events, climate and geographic changes can be deduced from this studies.
6) Paliantology: It deals with the study of fossils and helps in understanding the evolution, migration and extinction of different plants and animals that lives during different periods of earths history. This branch is not significant for civil engineers.
7) Economic Geology: Concerned with the study of economic minerals, formation, occurrence, association and distribution of economic minerals are studied here.
8) Engineering Geology:Knowledge of various branches of geology is essential for various civil engineering projects. Engineering Geology deals with application of geologic knowledge in civil engineering. This is important in the implementation of major projects like dams, tunnels, nuclear power plants, bridges and highway roads.
9) Hydro Geology: Hydro Geology is related with formation, occurrence, distribution and movement of ground water. It also deals with exploration and development of ground water, ground water recharge techniques and ground water quality aspects.
10) Dynamic Geology: It deals with the process and features resulting from plate tectonics and interior constitution of earth. Process like earthquake, volcanic activity, and features like mid oceanic bridges, trenches, are related to plate tectonics.
11) Geo physics: It is the study of physical properties of different layers of rocks. The commonly studied properties are density, magnetism, electrical resistivity and radio activity.It is also important for civil engineers.
12) Geo Chemistry: This is not that significant for civil engineers and uses the application of chemical knowledge in geology. Nature and concentration of different elements in minerals, rocks and fluids are important to understand the origin and evolution.
13) Environmental Geology: Study of environment in relation with geology process and principles. The different natural agents and process controls and modify the earth's environment. This branch is also significant for civil engineers.